Jumat, 27 Februari 2009

Aesthetic Concept of Lakonet


The murwa above is quoted from http://wayangcitra.blogspot.com/, a site of wayang in cyberspace that is hyperedited by Ki Harsono Siswocarito, since November 2007. The site uploads new genres of wayang, such as lakonet, visual wayang, digital wayang, graphic wayang, animation wayang, and interactive wayang. But in this writing the genre discussed is only lakonet, especially relating to its aesthetic concepts.

The meaning of aesthetic concept in the title of this writing is the ideas of beauty implied within lakonet. Whereas the meaning of tension between tradition and innovation is the aesthetic concepts that refer to the ideas of traditional beauty and those of the modern ones.

Meaning of Lakonet

Lakonet is a blend of the word "lakon" (wayang story) and "net" (Internet). This term is used by Ki Harsono Siswocarito to refer to a new wayang genre that is published in the Internet. The aesthetic concept of lakonet as a new genre of wayang refers to pedalangan literature.

Pedalangan literature is literary devices created by dalang in the performing art of wayang. It consists of murwa or pelungan (opening of pedalangan poem or suluk), nyandra janturan (first scene description) and pocapan (scene narration), suluk (padalangan poem), antawacana (wayang dialogue), sabetan (body language of wayang), suara (voice, sound, and onomatopoea), tembang (song), mantra (magic poem), and cerita (wayang story).

A. Murwa

Murwa is the opening poem of wayang show, in pedalangan of East Java it is known as pelungan; in  Central Java it is known as ilahengan; and in Wes Java it is murwa. Below are the examples of a short murwa and long one.
Kembang sungsang binang kunang
Cahaya nira kadya gilang gumilang
A long murwa below is from the pedalangan of West Java.
Adam Adam babuh lawan
Ingkang ngagelaraken cahya nur cahya
Dangiang wayang wayanganipun
Perlambang alam sadaya
Semar sana ya danar guling
Basa sem pangangen-angen
Mareng ngemaraken Dzat Kang Maha Tunggal
Wayang agung wineja wayang tunggal
Wayang tunggal
In Ki Harsono Siswocarito's lakonet, murwa derived from literary pedalangan is modified into a new form. Below are the examples of English version murwa in his lakonets.
The glass screen, Gusti
Is shadowing wayang
Wayang's obeying dalang
Dalang's ruling wayang
Its shadow is sign, Gusti
My worship is for God only
Universe creator and all its
I adore all of the great poets
To whom worship God only
And also
The greatness of a king
Is in his wise thinking
The greatness of a state
Justice for people to get
B. Nyandra

Nyandra is a scene description by using prosy language in wayang performance. There are two kinds of nyandra: janturan and pocapan. Janturan is scene description with gamelan music; and pocapan is scene narration without gamelan music. Based on the pedalangan of , Ki Harsono Siswocarito modifies a nyandra and translate it into English below.

1. The example of Janturan
Sinareng nira pertangga, watri gumanti sang hyang latri kapundut ima-ima gambura kalawan ancala. Gambura is the beginning, ancala is the hill of mountain, si Walangtunggal the story signed by asta gangga wira tanu patra. Asta is hands, gangga is water, wira is wise man, tanu is ink, patra is words. Words and ink are created into an alphabet of wilanjana wilanjani. Wilanjana is the alphabet of Ha, wilanjani is the alphabet of Alip. The alphabet of Alip spreading out in the West became thirty letters, Alip ba ta sa. Don't finish the alphabet of Alip, it is not the right place to concern with the alphabet of Alip. Vanishing the alphabet of Alip is existing the alphabet of Ha. The alphabet of Ha spreading out in the East, falling into the Java island was created into the alphabet of kalih dasa, kalih two, dasa ten, the twenty letters are divided into four mazhab, such as:
Ha na ca ra ka is east, da ta sa wa la is south, pa da ja ya nya is west, ma ga ba ta nga is north. Ha na ca ra ka is the governor, da ta sa wa la is the ordered, pa da ja ya nya is the bad heart, ma ga ba ta nga can not be said. The alphabet has died in the north.
Vanishing the twenty alphabet, exists again the alphabet, wulanjana wulanjani. Wulanjana ia desire of father, wulanjani is desire of mother. The desire of father falls into the desire of mother, goes into puri. is woman, puri is a palace. Which palace is going to be the opening? The…… palace is used as the beginning. Basically the state is panjang punjung pasir wukir loh jinawi. Panjang is told by people, punjung is highly distinguished, pasir is ocean, wukir is mountain, loh jinawi is very wealthy, not lack of clothes and food, and diamonds.
Who becomes the king? The king sits in the ivory throne of gilang kencana crowned by binokasri jewelry, wearing gelung gono, gelung gongsor, kelat bahu kempal dada, strapping on his keris of Kyai Jagapati, pendok carved by coriander motif, its amar-amaran yellow silk, white silk, black silk, red silk, dodot gresik wayang.
One playing a dalang is dora sembada, dora is lie, sembada is fit. What cause becomes fit? There is a fact. What fact is it? There is wayang purwa. Wayang is a shadow and purwa is a beginning. Only following an ancient plot, following old traces, old man began, young man just does. But the difference is that the ancient wayang has been changed into wayang golek. What is the meaning of golek, disenggol or touched until dead lying, and its eyes still opening. However, the word golek according to Javanese is to look for. Looking for what, looking for its origin, because golek is not different from man. Hush dangerous golek is made similar to man. Is not golek made of wood, carved, painted, becoming a doll. Why can the doll speak alone and live? Golek is moved without move, gesture without gesture, because golek is spoken by dalang. Do not feel to be a dalang, only feeling to play wayang, to play dalang. Playing of what? Playing of wooden puppets, you see, audience need entertaining, better than sleeping in the evening.
Mountain without valley there is not a black monkey. The Long tale is made short, the short is cut, sebat kang genjotan.
Nayndra in lakonet is modified into short one, like the examples below.
MERCUKUNDA, SURALAYA—Sang Hyang Pramesti Guru Jagatnata is Sang Hyang Otipati, the king of Jagat Triloka, sitting on the throne of Kursi Gading Gilang Kencana, visited by divas, bataras, sanghyangs, gods, goddess, all citizens of Sorgaloka.
And below is the shorter one.
ASTINA—The leaders of Kurawa together with General Baladewa, the President of Mandura, discusses national catastrophe.
2. The example of Pocapan

Pocapan is scene narration without gamelan music to tell its event. Below is an example of pocapan in Jaya Renyuan performed by dalang Dede Amung Sutarya:
Padmanegara nyandak dua hulusapu bade dicipta ku Kresna. Atuh Kresna rep idakep ana sinuku tunggal babakane caturdriya--catur papat, driya angen-angen, sir budi cipta kalawan rasa. Pangambung teu diangge ngangse; soca teu diangge ningal; cepil teu diangge ngarungu; baham teu diangge ngucap lir ibarat anu paeh ngadeg, nanging bentena pedah ngangge ambegan.
In lakonet, pocapan is also modified into short one, and even like lines in poetry. Below are the examples.
All divas are prepared
To attack Triloka's foes!
And below is the poetical one.
The giants attack cruelly!
The giants fight angrily!
C. Suluk

Suluk is the poems sung by dalang in wayang show. Below are the examples of suluk from the pedalangan of West Java.
Saur nira tandana panjang
Sinenggih sabda ya uninga lawan
Sabda ya uninga lawan
Sauri nira tandana panjang sinenggih
Sabda uninga mama
Ulun layu dening sekti ala bakti dening asih
Ya ding asih
Wong asih ora katara
In lakonet, suluk is modified into couplet poems. Below are the examples of suluk in Ki Harsono Siswocarito's lakonet.
Standby sang Dursasana
Troop commander of Astina!
Kurawa attack the campus
The students deadly push
D. Antawacana
Antawacana is a dialogue between wayang figures, and a dialogue between wayang figure and nayaga (musicians), wirasuara (man singer), or jurukawih (woman singer) is called aside. Antawacana is presented after pocapan. Below is an example of dialogue in Jaya Renyuan garapan performed by dalang Dede Amung Sutarya:
KRESNA: Eladalah, Yayi, Yayi Setiaki.
SETIAKI: Kaula nun.
KRESNA: Kakang Patih Udawa.
UDAWA: Lo, lo, lo, Hahahah… pun kakang Patih Udawa.
KRESNA: Marajeng ka payun calikna.
Below is antawacan in lakonet.
BIMA: Our distinguished professors! Are you regret the action of Kurawa's troops?
KANETRA: Of course! But, I regard such an action is funny clown. And we could defend ourselves.
PULASIA: Huahaha… right! The attack's no significance for biomacrobot, my robotic engineering.
ESTIBANDA: And my future monsterobot could destroy the troops.
MANINGRAT: Bastard Kurawa! Such a snob Wayang's dare to show off. Overacting! Khhk-phew!
MARUTA: They should be educated, Prof! Make them nyaho!
BARUNA: All right! They think sciences only exist in , technology only exists in ? So proud!
BIMA: Great! The military action of Astina should be executed. Prepare the troops of biomacrobot and monsterobot to attack Astina.
PULASIA: Yes, Sir!
E. Sabetan
Sabetan is the body language of wayang including dancing, acting, and fighting. Dancing is the gesture of wayang accompanied by song and gamelan music. Acting is the gesture of wayang only accompanied with kecrek or kendang. Fighting is the gesture of wayang in war accompanied with gamelan music or only with kecrek or kendang. In lakonet, sabetan is presented by scene action.
RIMBAMALA.—Mintaraga is battling with the troops of Manimantaka.
“S-stop! W-who are u?”
“Gong, let's beat em!”
“Great!”—(Thwack! Clunk!)
Falling-surrendering (Crash! Boom!)—“Feel this! Whoosh!”—(Clunk! Boom!)—“O-o-ouch!”
“Phew! Bastards! Kaladurga, Kaladurjana, Kaladuraksa, Kaladurmala, Kalastuwila, Kaladaksa, Kaladarba, Kalagarba, Kaladuskerta, Kaladusta, Kaladursila—attack!”
“Reng, let's attack em with grenades!” +
“Ok!”—(Click! Whoosh!)
F. Suara
Suara is voices, sounds, and onomatopoeia to complete sabetan, especially fighting. Below is an example of suara from a lakonet (lakon or drama in Internet) by Ki Harsono Siswocarito.
“Nurkala Kalimantra! Fight me Batara Wisnu!”
“Who? Wisnu? March—where is the champion of divas? Grrrk-phew! Look, are you sleeping? O facing downward! What are you doing, Wisnu?”
“No mal-question! Feel this missile of Cakra—you die!”—(Whoosh! Clap!)
(Krep!)—“Huahaha… such a missile does not wrok!”—(Blep! Ccss!)
“Crazy! Useless, Wisnu!”
“Ouch, damn it—”
“Run! Run! Run!”
G. Tembang
Tembang is song sung by pesinden (woman singer), wirasuara (man singer), or dalang. Woman singer sings the opening song of wayang show. Woman and/or man singer sings songs along with wayang show. Songs in Limbukan and Gara-gara are sung by dalang duet with woman singer or guest stars. Below is an example of the opening song from the pedalangan of West Java:
Sampurasun dulur-dulur
Nu aya di pilemburan
Wilujeng patepang dangu
Ti abdi saparakanca
Ti abdi saparakanca
Gamelan Munggul Pawenang
Nyanggakeun hiburanana, Juragan
La mugiya janten panglipur
Pangbeberah duh kana manah
The song below is sung by panakawan in Ki harsono Siswocarito's lakonet derives from Sundanese Asmarandana.
Gandasari buah ati
Pujaan urang sadaya
Buku pinuh kupapaes
Alus jadi patamanan
And he quotes and modifies a song from the Rolling Stones.
Yu yus tu bi mai parti dol
Bat now yu sey de parti’s oper
The original lyric is:
You used to be my party doll
But now you say the party's over
H. Mantra
Mantra, magic poem in pedalangan, consists of two categories. First, mantra recited by dalang before performing wayang show. Second, mantra recited by a figure of wayang to show its power. The first example is the mantra of opening performance from Mpu Tan Akung:
Ingsun Angidhepa Sang Hyang Guru Reka,
Kamatantra: swaranku manikastagina.
The second one is mantra penyirepan recited by Indrajit to make other characters sleep:
Rep sirep si Megananda
Wong sarewu padha tumut
Salaksa wong serah nyawa
I. Cerita
The story of lakonet derives from wayang stories. Wayang stories can be classified into pakem, carangan, gubahan, and sempalan stories. The pakem stories derive from Mahabarata, Ramayana, Serat Paramayoga, Serat Pustaka Rajapurwa, Serat Purwakandha, etc. Carangan stories are the modified versions of pakem stories. Gubahan stories are the adapted versions. Sempalan stories are the new creative versions of wayang stories.
Supporting Ellements
Beside the elements of pedalangan literature mensioned above, lakonet has supporting elements such as image, hypertext, and cybertext.
Image is the illustration picture used as supporting element of lakonet. The image for lakonet illustration applies digital wayang, a wayang picture that is made by using tdigial painting technique. By reffering to the aesthetic concept of layarmaya, digital wayang digital is made in reverse of printed wayang. Layarmaya uses black background, and printed wayang uses white background. So digital wayang uploaded in lakonet is a white shadow on a black background. It is different from a printed wayang that manifests a black shadow on a white background. And so does a black shadow of wayang kulit on a white background.
Hypertext in lakonet consists of internal link and external link. The use of link make a text different from a hypertext. Hypertextualization is a process of mediamorfosis from a written text into an electronic hypertext.
Cybertext in lakonet is an interactive facility between hypertextualization done by ki dalangmaya and its cybercommunity in cyberspace. Such an interactivity gives a chance to all netizens within the cybercommunity to interact actively.
Pedalangan literature is very plural and has many genres. This case indicates that the plurality of Indonesian pedalangan has many kinds of styles, such as pedalangan styles of West Java, Central Java, East Java, Bali, Lombok, Banjar, and etc.
Lakonet is a postmodern genre of wayang that uses Internet as its medium of perform-ance and publication. However, the readers can read the printed version in this lakonet booklet.
Semarang, 22 Juni 2008
Harghana SW, Bondhan. 2003. Janturan Jangkep Wayang Purwo. Sukoharjo-Surakarta: Cendrawasih.
Haryanto, s. 1992. Bayang-bayang Adhiluhung. Semarang: Dahara Prize.
Sukatno, Anom. 1993. Janturan lan Pocapan Ringgit Purwo. Sukoharjo-Surakarta: Cendrawasih.
Sutarya, Dede Amung. 1977. Jaya Renyuan. Bandung: Gita Record Metropolitan.
Timoer, Soenarto.1988. Serat Wewaton Padhalangan Jawi Wetanan II. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.