Pedalangan literature is literary devices created by dalang in the performing art of wayang. Padalangan literature consists of murwa or pelungan (opening of pedalangan poem or suluk), nyandra janturan (first scene description) and pocapan scene narration), suluk (padalangan poem), antawacana (wayang dialogue), sabetan (body language of wayang), suara (voice, sound, and onomatopoea), tembang (song), and mantra (magic poem).
Murwa is the opening poem of wayang show, in pedalangan of East Java known as pelungan; in Central Java it is known as ilahengan; and in West Java it is murwa. Below are the examples of a short murwa and long one:
Kembang sungsang binang kunang
Cahaya nira kadya gilang gumilang
Adam adam babuh lawan
Ingkang ngagelaraken cahya nur cahya
Dangiang wayang wayanganipun
Perlambang alam sadaya
Semar sana ya danar guling
Basa sem pangangen-angen
Mareng ngemaraken Dzat Kang Maha Tunggal
Wayang agung wineja wayang tunggal
Nyandra is a scene description by using prosy language in wayang performance. There are two kinds of nyandra: janturan and pocapan. Janturan is scene description with gamelan music; and pocapan is scene narration without gamelan music. The example of nyandra below is modified by Ki Harsono Siswocarito based on pedalangan of West Java:
Sinareng nira kenya pertangga, watri gumanti sang hyang latri kapundut ima-ima gambura kalawan ancala. Gambura is the beginning, ancala is the hill of mountain, si Walangtunggal the story signed by asta gangga wira tanu patra. Asta is hands, gangga is water, wira is wise man, tanu is ink, patra is words.
Words and ink are created into the alphabets of wilanjana wilanjani. Wilanjana is the alphabet of Ha, wilanjani is the alphabet of Alip. The alphabet of Alip spreading out in the West, became thirty letters, Alip ba ta sa. Don't finish the alphabet of Alip, it is not the right place to concern with the alphabet of Alip. Vanishing the alphabet of Alip is existing the alphabet of Ha. The alphabet of Ha spreading out in the East, falling into the island of Java, was created into the alphabet of kalih dasa, kalih two, dasa ten, the twenty letters are divided into four mazhab, such as:
Ha na ca ra ka is east, da ta sa wa la is south, pa da ja ya nya is westt, ma ga ba ta nga is north. Ha na ca ra ka is the governor, da ta sa wa la is the ordered, pa da ja ya nya is the bad heart, ma ga ba ta nga can not be said. The alphabet has died in the north.
Vanishing the twenty alphabet, exists again the alphabet, wulanjana wulanjani. Wulanjana ia desire of father, wulanjani is desire of mother. The desire of father falls into the desire of mother, goes into kenya puri. Kenya is woman, puri is a palace.
Which palace is going to be the opening? The…… palace is used as the beginning. Basically the state is panjang punjung pasir wukir loh jinawi. Panjang is told by people, punjung is highly distinguished, pasir is ocean, wukir is mountain, loh jinawi is very welthy, not lack of clothes and food, and diamonds.
Who becomes the king? The king sits in the ivory throne of gilang kencana crowned by binokasri jewelry, wearing gelung gono, gelung gongsor, kelat bahu kempal dada, strapping on his keris of Kyai Jagapati, pendok carved by coriander motif, its amar-amaran yellow silk, white silk, black silk, red silk, dodot gresik wayang.
One playing dalang is dora sembada, dora is lie, sembada is fit. What cause becomes fit? There is a fact. What fact? There is wayang purwa. Wayang is shadow, purwa is the beginning. Only following an ancient plot, following old traces, old man began, young man just does.
But the difference is that the ancient wayang has been changed into wayang golek. What is the meaning of golek, disenggol or touched until dead lying, and its eyes still opening. However, the word golek according to Javanese is to look for. Looking for what, looking for its origin, because golek is not different from man. Hush dangerous golek is made similar to man. Is not golek made of wood, carved, painted, becoming a doll. Why can the doll speak alone and live? Golek is moved without move, gesture without gesture, because golek is spoken by dalang. Do not feel to be a dalang, only feeling to play wayang, to play dalang. Playing of what? Playing of wooden puppets, you see, audience need entertaining, better that sleeping in the evening.
Mountain without valley there is not a black monkey. The Long tale is made short, the short is cut, sebat kang genjotan.
Pocapan is scene narration without gamelan music to tell its event. Below is an example of pocapan in Jaya Renyuan performed by dalang Dede Amung Sutarya:
Padmanegara nyandak dua hulusapu bade dicipta ku Kresna. Atuh Kresna rep sidakep ana sinuku tunggal babakane caturdriya--catur papat, driya angen-angen, sir budi cipta kalawan rasa. Pangambung teu diangge ngangse; soca teu diangge ningal; cepil teu diangge ngarungu; baham teu diangge ngucap lir ibarat anu paeh ngadeg, nanging bentena pedah ngangge ambegan.
Nanging tadige manggahing nu Mahakawasa teu weleh nganter ka manusa rek hade rek goreng asal tanggel jawab dirina pribadi. Maksudna diduluran, maksadna diijabah. Ilang dua hulu sapu, janggelek dados ponggawa, anu hiji dados satria.
Suluk is the poems sung by dalang is wayang show. Below are the examples of suluk from the pedalangan of West Java.
Saur nira tandana panjang
Sinenggih sabda ya uninga lawan
Sabda ya uninga lawan
Sauri nira tandana panjang sinengih
Sabda uninga wis mama
Ulun layu dening sekti ala bakti dening asih
Ya ding asih
Wong asih ora katara
Betet ijo Kepodang ulese kuning
Abang manuke wulung kadya wowor
Sandang rawit puter gemeke ya lurik-lurik
Dadanira kinuwungan ya kinuwungan
Kadya bocah ngangge kakalung
Ningsor waringin wulung
Sri tinon ing pasewakan
Murub mubyar cahayanira
Sri tinon ing pasewakan
Murub mubyar socanira
Kadya parada tinabur
Sekar wijaya kusuma lawan
Antawacana is a dialogue between wayang figures, and a dialogue between wayang figure and nayaga (musicians), wirasuara (man singer), or jurukawih (woman singer) is called aside. Antawacana is presented after pocapan. Below is an example of dialogue in Jaya Renyuan garapan performed by dalang Dede Amung Sutarya:
KRESNA: Eladalah, Yayi, Yayi Setiaki.
SETIAKI: Kaula nun.
KRESNA: Kakang Patih Udawa.
UDAWA: Lo, lo, lo, Hahahah… pun kakang Patih Udawa.
KRESNA: Marajeng ka payun calikna.
SETIAKI: Ti payun anu kapihatur pun rayi nyanggakeun sembah pangabakti mugiya ditampi.
KRESNA: Sembah Rayi ditampi kudua panangan kiwa kalawan tengen, disimpen di luhur dina embun-embunan, di handap dina pangkonan, dicatet dina tungtung emutan anu teu keuna kuowah gingsir.
SETIAKI: Ngahaturkeun nuhun. Kalih perkawisna—
KRESNA: Kumaha, Yayi?
SETIAKI: Bilih aya kalepatan ageng sumawanten alit, agung cukup lumur, neda jembar hapunten anu diteda.
KRESNA: Perkawis kalepatan sok bujeng ku aya basana menta dihampura, sanaos teu aya basana akang parantos jadi lautan hampura kana kalepatan sampean, Yayi.
SETIAKI: Ngahaturkeun nuhun.
“E-e-babo-babo… Gog—ada p-penjelajah r-rimba Pringga-dingatala. S-siapa, Gog?
“Sst! Jendral Arjuna!”
“E-e-babo-babo… s-serbu!”—(Clap!)—“C-ciaat!”—(Dez! Zplak! Deb! Bugh!)—“Hugk-khoeekh uhuooo… m-mati a-aku, Gog!”—(Bruk!)
“Cakil mati, Lung!”
“Biarin saja, Gog!”
“Grr-babo-babo, keparat! Hadapi aku Dityakala Badai-segara! Heh, konco-konco: Pragalba, Rambut Geni, Padas Gempal, Jurangrawah, Buta Ijo, Buta Terong, Buta Endog—ayo keroyok si perwira keparat itu!”
“C’mon!” + “OK!” + “Move!”
“Satu, dua, tiga! Ciat! Ciat! Ciiaatt!”—(Blaarr!)—“Aduh! Ahk! Khk! Klk!”—(Blug! Blug! Blug!)
“Zuilah! Mampuz zemua!” + “Benal! Ayo lali, Mas!”
“Ziapa lu? O yez! Kenalin—gue Mr George! Yez, Mr Joz!”
“Busyet! Keren juga nih Buto—pake nama beken segala! Elu kalah, Reng.”
“Em… lu siape, Pelo?”
“Mistel Gabliel! Ayo pelgi ah! Usah ngulusin olang tak kaluan!”—(Bugh! Bugh!)—“Adow! Main pelmak lagi! Blantem-blantem, tapi spoltif! Ngawul’u!”
Tembang is song sung by pesinden (woman singer), wirasuara (man singer), or dalang. The opening song of wayang show is sung by woman singer. Song along with wayang show is sung by woman and man singer. Songs in Limbukan and Gara-gara are sung by dalang duet with woman singer or guest stars. Below is an example of the opening song from the pedalangan of West Java:
Nu aya di pilemburan
Wilujeng patepang dangu
Ti abdi saparakanca
Ti abdi saparakanca
Gamelan Munggul Pawenang
Nyanggakeun hiburanana, Juragan
La mugiya janten panglipur
Pangbeberah duh kana manah
"Lagu Nu Ngusep"
Barung herang liar mijah
Clom kiriwil ari anclom ngagiriwil
Mawa epan rupa-rupa
Clom kurunyud lamun anclom sok ngurunyud
Plung kecemplung plung kecemplung
Empan teuleum kukumbul ambul-ambulan
Kenur manteng jeujeur jeceng
Leungeun lempeng panon mah naksir nu mandi
Kop tah lauk mere dahareun
Mangga mangga mangga geura tuang
Geura raos ditanggung deudeuieun
Mangga mangga ulah isin=isin
Empan cangkilu ungkul dilangkung
Empan papatong kalah dipelong
Ku epan colek kalah ngadelek
Lekcom lekcom panon belek nyambel oncom
Lakon is dramatic story for wayang show. Lakons of wayang purwa derives from Mahabarata, Ramayana, Serat Paramayoga, Serat Pustaka Rajapurwa, Serat Purwakandha, etc. Lakons of wayang madya and wayang wasana derives from babads. Lakons of wayang wahyu derives from the bible.
Mantra, magic poem in pedalangan, consists of two categories. First, mantra recited by dalang before performing wayang show. Second, mantra recited by a figure of wayang to show its power. The first example is the mantra of opening performance from Mpu Tan Akung:
Ingsun Angidhepa Sang Hyang Guru Reka,
Kamatantra: swaranku manikastagina.
Rep sirep si Megananda
Wong sarewu padha tumut
Salaksa wong serah nyawa